There are two manuscripts which tell about “Tiga Bulanan” ceremony, namely Dharma Kauripan manuscript and Tutur Panus Karma manuscript.
Dharma Kauripan says about the Manusia Yadnya ceremonies which are conducted in sequence start from the baby is still in the mother’s womb, such as: garbhadanam or magedong-gedongan which is held when the baby is seven month and still in the mother’s womb.
The purpose of this ceremony is to strengthen the atma (spirit) in the baby’s body. Then, Jatakarma ceremony or mapag rare ceremony is conducted as the baby born. The purpose is to show the happiness and welcome the reborn of the ancestor’s spirit.
The next step is when the navel cord is apart from the baby’s navel or kepus puser. Here, Dapetan ceremony and Prayascita are presented to the baby’s father in order to set him free from boundary to enter the holy place. When the baby is 42 days old, the Tugtug kambuhan ceremony is conducted.
This is the occasion when the mother is purified and then she may enter the holy place. When the baby is 105 days old or three month (based on Balinese calendar) the Tiga Bulanan or Nyambhutin ceremony is conducted.
As the baby has his/ her first tooth there will be a small ceremony called ngempugin and so does when he/ she looses the first tooth there will also a small ceremony called Dapetan.
The next step is Ngraja Sewala and potong gigi ceremonies which can be conducted when the child has become a teenager signed by the first menstruation for girl and bigger voice for boy. It usually happened by the age of 14 years old. Finally, after those sequences are accomplished, the Pawiwahan or wedding can be conducted.
Tutur Panus Karma manuscript sates that there are two Hyang Widhi’s powers that guard the baby in the mother’s womb soon after the impregnation, namely: Nyama Bajang and Kanda Pat. Nyama Bajang consists of 108 invisible powers and Kanda Pat consists of four visible powers such as Yehnyom which protects the fetus from the outside disturbance.
Lamas is a fat coat which covers the baby’s body, Getih or blood which circulates the food, and Ari-ari (placenta) in the navel cord which bring the baby to life since it absorbs the food.
Kanda Pat has its own name according to the baby’s growth. When it is still in the form of embryo the Yehnyom is called Lembana,the Lamas is named Bra, the blood is Angdian,the Ari-ari (placenta) named Karen and the fetus named Lengprana.
As the womb is in 20 days, each of the Kanda Pat has the name as follow: Dengen, Preta, Kala, Anta, and the fetus named Lilacita. As the baby born, the name will be Yehnyom, Lamas, Getih, and Ari-ari, meanwhile the baby named I Pung.
As the navel cord a part (12-14 days after the baby born) the names of the Kanda Pat are I Selair, I Selebir, I Mokair, I Mekair, nad the baby name is I Tutur Menget. If the baby can utter the words, the name of each part of the Kanda Pat is Banaspatiraja, Prajapati, Banaspati, Anggapati, and the baby name is I Jiwa.
As the child grow up the name will be Sang Aji Putra Petak, Sang Sidarasa, Sang Maskuina, Sang Sidhasakti, and the dchild name is I Lisah. When the person is already old (has grand child) each of the Kanda Pat name is Sang Yasrep, Sang Kroda, Sang Sari, Sang Podgala, and the person name is Sang Ramaranurasi.
When the person dies the names will be Sang Dorakala, Sang Jogormanik, Sang Mahakala, Sang Suratman and the dead body name isSang Manjing. When the Pitra Yadnya ceremony has been conducted to the catur sanak,it will return to the heaven each part of the Kanda Pat name will be Suniasiwa, Sadasiwa, Paramasiwa, Siwa and the Atma (soul) called Ratnakusuma.
THE PURPOSE OF THE CEREMONY.
The purpose of the Tiga Bulanan ceremony are:
- As our appreciation to Sang Hyang Widhi (God) because of His two powers, Nyama Bajang and Kanda Pat, which have taken good care on the baby since it is in the form of embryo until it is born safely.
- To purify the baby so he can enter the holy place.
- To give the name to the baby and do his first step in the family temple in front of Sanggah Kemulan.
That is the reason why the Tiga Bulanan ceremony should be done when the baby is in the age of 105 days. If there is any member of the family died at the time of the ceremony takes place, the Tiga Bulanan ceremony still can be conducted at the other place, apart from the place of mourning.
THE SERRIES OF THE CEREMONY
- First, the mabeakala is conducted to the baby’s parents to purify them in order to release themselves from cuntaka ( border to enter the holy place).
- Then, tepung tawar is dedicated to Nyama Bajang which is symbolized by Reregek and Kanda Pat that is symbolized by papah (ari-ari), pusuh (getih), ketimun (lamas), and batu bulitan (Yehnyom). Moreover, a chicken becomes the symbol of Atma.
- Soon after that, the baby will have the offering which already dedicated to the bajang colong, the baby will be bathed according to the ritual, mepetik (cut his/ her hair), natab the sambutan offering.
- Finally, the baby is brought into the family temple and has the first step in front of Sanggar Kemulan.
During the ceremony, there are some symbols used, such as: payuk bolong (perforated pan) which is covered by tapis is the symbol of the mother’s pregnancy. Paon citakan (brick stove) the place where the chicken is paseed by becomes the symbol of Atma which is reincarnated.
Jan (stairs) made of yellow sugar cane and wedged by the dapdap as the symbol of samara ratih. Lesung batu (stone mortar) the symbol of power. Pane (clay pot with wide surface) the symbol of Hyang Widhi’s miracle. The water in the Pane the symbol of akasa. Leg bracelets the symbol of Bhatara Brahma bless.Bracelets the symbol of Visnu. The last is Pupuk as the symbol of Siva.
A song is sung to entertain the Kanda Pat and Nyama Bajang during the Reregek, papah, pusuh, ketimun (cucumber), batu bulitan, and chicken are brought encircling the offering of mapurwa daksina.
ANUNG-ANUNG PUNAPA PARANING ANUNG, BABE REKO DADUA, UHUMBULE SAWIJI, MEKERANA KUKUNE LINGKER BANG KARNA,
BIBI ANUNG LAMUN PAYU LUAS MANDUS, ANTENGE TEKEKANG, YATNAIN NGABE MASUI, TIUK PUNTUL BAWANG ANGGON SASIKEPAN.
ANAK LIU BENCANA DIMARGI AGUNG, BAJANG ULU BUKAL, MABGISEP NYONYO NGULANTING, MANGETEKUL MEKERANE TAN PESU EMPEHAN.
After the song accomplished, the reregek and papah are swept away in the river. Meanwhile, the pusuh, ketimun and batu bulitan are buried near the place where the ari-ari is buried.
THE ROLE OF RARE KUMARA
Siva has sons named Bhatara Kala and rare Kumara. Siva allows Bhatara Kala to eat anybody who born on Tumpek Wayang. Since Rare Kumara was born on Tumpek Wayang,it is become bhatara Kala right to eat him. But, Rare Kumara could escape and saved by Ki Dalang.
Bhatara Kala then cursed Rare Kumara that Rare Kumara will always have the body of a baby. Fortunately, because of Siva compassion, rare Kumare was given a task to take care the baby. That is the reason why above the baby’s bad a pelangkiran is hung completed with the offering to worship Rare Kumara.
The ceremony conducted to give name to the baby is very sacral because it is witnessed by Bhatara Hyang Guru in Sanggar Kemulan. As the consequence, the name of a person must not be changed unless it becomes the parents’ wish.
For example, if a woman becomes the wife of a man from “Triwangsa” class, her name is not replaced in order not to be sine person. The one who already does Pediksaan (a priest) may change the name.